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Interpersonal Writing Vocabulary


above all
after all is said and done
along with
as far as I’m concerned
at all costs
at any rate; anyway
at the beginning
at the same time
but rather
to be characterized by
to consist of
even though
to exemplify
from the above
I think that
If we think about
In conclusion
In fact
In particular
In principle
In relation to
In short
In spite of
In summary
In the first place
It has nothing to do with
It is suitable
needless to say
on the one hand
on the other hand
one must take into account
to point out
to serve to
since; seeing that
speaking of
then; next
to turn a deaf ear
what is important is that
sobre todo
de veras; de verdad
al fin y al cabo
otra vez
junto con
para mí, por mi parte
cuesta lo que cuesta
de todos modos
al principio
al mismo tiempo; a la vez
caracterizarse por
consistir en
ante todo
de lo anterior
opino que
si pensamos en
en conclusión; en suma
en realidad; de hecho; en efecto
en particular
en principio
con relación a
en breve; en fin
a pesar de
en resumen; en resumidas cuentas
en primer lugar
no tiene nada que ver con
mientras tanto
por otra parte; por otro lado
sobra decir que
sin embargo
por una parte; por un lado
en cambio; por otro lado
hay que tomar en cuenta
a lo mejor; quizás
en cuanto a
servir para
del mismo modo
ya que
hablando de
por eso
hacerse el sordo
lo importante es que




3.8 Paragraph Structure



“PEEL” Method of writing organization

Sample PEEL paragraph: Education and technology
In today’s society, more than ever, technology has greatly impacted the ways in which we learn and teach a multitude of topics. Among those making the most of e-learning platforms are topics which address employee performance. (POINT) According to a list of the top ten most popular e-learning courses, project management, time management, and customer service skills were among the top three listed.*(EVIDENCE) This can tell us many things about what e-learning has to offer. One is that the convenience it provides is ideal for continuous learning, short term courses as well as self-paced classes. Similarly, this platform works very well when the education needs of many people must be met in a time efficient and orderly manner (as is required by many large corporations and businesses). (EXPLANATION) With these and many other benefits, such as cost efficiency and time flexibility, we can expect to see many more courses presented in this manner as the advent of e-learning alters the way we learn; not only in the workforce, but also in academic and recreational pursuits. (LINK)*The evidence you present should come from reputable sources and be cited accordingly. Therefore, a foot or end note may be entered here as well as parenthetical citations.In this sample paragraph we can see the implementation of each aspect of the PEEL writing format:

  1. The point of the paragraph here is explained in two sentences and goes from the broad to the specific; by first starting off with the impact of technology overall and then mentioning its specific influence on employee training and performance.
  2. The evidence of the main topic is presented in the form of a statistical report that supports the point of employee performance courses being in the greatest demand as well as provide an example of how education has been greatly impacted by technology.
  3. Afterwards an explanation is given that indicates exactly what can be deduced from the evidence provided. It incorporates interpretation by attempting to explain why e-learning is so popular with businesses. In the meantime it also evaluates it to be a positive means of educating others by highlighting its benefits.
  4. Lastly, the link sentence takes you back to the main point by reiterating that ‘e-learning alters the way we learn’ and it also summarizes and provides closure to the entirety of the paragraph. And though a second paragraph is not visible, this last link sentence also opens the door for a new paragraph that deals with e-learning’s connection to ‘academic and recreational pursuits.’

Essay Planner – Student Organizer – Download it below:



Have 5-7 of them in mind.

como si fuera————- as if I were
hacerle caso a———— to pay attention to someone
tener deseos de———- to have a desire to
tener ganas de———– to have a desire to
contar con—————- to count on
a fondo——————- in depth; fully
ponerse de acuerdo—— to agree
de acuerdo con———– in accordance with
no cabe duda————- there’s no doubt
a causa de—————- because of
a menos que————– unless
luego——————— later
a lo mejor—————- maybe
posiblemente————- possibly
a la vez——————- at the same time
mejor dicho————— better said
es decir——————- that is; that is to say
cuanto antes————– as soon as possible
ahora mismo————– right now
por ejemplo————— for example
por lo visto—————- from what is seen (for all of this)
casi————————- almost
de repente/de pronto—– suddenly
de ninguna manera——– in no way
a ver…——————– Let’s see…
a propósito————— on purpose
a pesar de—————- in spite of
sin embargo————– nevertheless
por eso——————- therefore
por lo general————- in general
por tanto—————– therefore
en cambio—————- in exchange
según——————— according to
tanto como————— as much as
visto lo visto————– given what we’ve seen; from what we’ve seen
tanto uno como otro—— one as much as the other



1. Pluralization:

  • recomendación recomendaciones (The plural of words ending on an syllable with a written accent lose the accent when adding –es to form the plural.)

2. Gender:

  • el problema, el tema, el programa: Most –ma words are masculine.
  • la recomendación, la television, las vacaciones, etc.: ALL –ción and –sión words are ALWAYS feminine.
  • la libertad, la juventud, la bondad, la pared: Words ending en –tad, -tud, -dad, -ed are feminine.

3. Vocabulary issues:

  • el colegio = junior high school or high school. You cannot use this for higher education!
  • la universidad = college…You must use this for higher education, even when the name of the institution has the English word college in it!
  • a tiempo = on time…NOT en tiempo!!!
  • conocer vs saber: Conocer is to know, as in acquaintance…One can be acquainted with a person, place, or thing. Saber is to know, as in facts or information about a person, place, or thing. It can also mean to know how.
  • trabajar vs funcionar: Use trabajar for the subject performing work as in toil, earning money, tasks, etc. Use funcionar for to work, as in to function. Mi padre trabaja en la oficina. La máquina no funciona hoy.
  • pedir vs preguntar: Pedir is for requesting; preguntar is for questioning
  • salir (de) vs dejar: Salir is used when the subject leaves a place; dejar takes a direct object and means to leave something behind
  • aplicar vs solictitar: Aplicar is to apply as in applying a theory; solicitar is for applying for admisión, a job,a scholarship, etc.
  • la aplicación vs la solicitud: Same reasoning as pervious item!
  • la erudición vs la beca: Erudición = Scholarship, as in wisdom, knowledge, learning; beca = scholarship, as in $ for college, etc.
  • decir, hablar, discutir: Use decir for to say or tell, use hablar for to speak or talk, and use discutir for to discuss or argue.
  • involucrado, tomar parte en involucrarse: Use these expressions instead of trying to state as in English: I am in Spanish Club. Yo estoy involucrada en el Club de español. Yo tomo parte en el Club de español. NOT: Estoy en
  • amar, querer vs encantar: Only use amar and querer for loving people, pets. Use Me encanta, Me encantan, Te encanta, Te encantan, etc. to state that you love something. Example: Me encanta el esquí.→ I love skiing.
  • Este vs ese: “This and these have the t’s.” So: este, esta, estos, estas = this/these AND ese, esa, esos, esas = that, those
  • el tiempo vs la vez: Tiempo is for time in general. How much time do we have? = ¿Cuanto tiempo tenemos? Use vez for time, as in instances: tres veces, muchas veces, varias veces, la primera vez, la última vez, etc.
  • bien vs buena: Just like in English…bueno/a/os/as = adjective; bien = adverb
  • volver vs devolver: Use volver when the subject himself/herself returns. Use devolver with a direct object. Ejemplos: Los profesores vuelven a la escuela. Los profesores les devuelven los papeles a los estudiantes.

4. Structure and grammar:

  • más que vs más de: más que = more than, BUT use más de as more than before numbers. Examples: Mi hermano tiene más libros que yo. Mi hermano tiene más de cincuenta libros.
  • que vs quien: When you wish to say “who” as a relative pronoun, use que unless preceded by a comma, then you may use quien. Examples:
      • El hombre que habla francés vive en Francia.
      • El hombre, quien habla francés, vive en Francia.
      • Marta es una mujer que ayuda a la gente.
      • Marta, quien ayuda a mucha gente, es una mujer inteligente.
  • ningún vs ninguna: Shorten ninguno to ningún before masculine singular nouns, but DO NOT shorten ninguna. Examples: Ella no tiene ningún dinero. BUT Ella no tiene ninguna comida.
  • una otra un otro: NEVER say un otro or una otra
  • tener interés por: In Spanish: tener interés por = to be interested in
  • todo el dinero, toda la comida: NOT todo de: NEVER say all of in Spanish!
  • antes de + inf.:= Before doing…Elena se pone el abrigo antes de salir de su casa.
  • despues dé + inf.: = After doing…Elena sale después de ponerse el abrigo.


To make it clear, we are going to use this color scheme:


The title


The mistake




Correct examples

Ask and ask for

I asked for a beer. I ordered a soft drink. *Pregunté por una gaseosa.*
Preguntar = to ask (when you want to know something)
Pedir = to ask for (when you want something)
I asked for a beer. I ordered a soft drink. Pedí una gaseosa.
I asked him if he had a soft drink. Le pregunté si tenia gaseosa.


I didn’t realize. *No me realicé.*
“Realizar”: means to carry out, execute, to make, to conduct. If you want to say “realize” in Spanish you have to say: “Darse cuenta”.
I didn’t realize. No me di cuenta.
She carried out her plan. Ella realizó su plan.

I remember that day

I remember that day. *Me recuerdo de aquel día.*
“Recordar” (to remember) does not have a reflexive pronoun, nor “de”.
Recordar a alguien = remember someone
I remember that day. Recuerdo aquel día.
Do you remember Juan? ¿Recuerdas a Juan?

The more I see him the more I like him

The more I see him the more I like him. *Lo más que lo veo lo más que me gusta.*
Just get used to the Spanish construction using “Cuanto”.
The more I see him the more I like him. Cuanto más lo veo, más me gusta.
The more I study the more I learn. Cuanto más estudio, más aprendo.
The less you smoke the better you feel. Cuanto menos fumas, mejor te sientes.

More than

More than twenty. *Más que veinte.*
Normally we use “que” eg. “más que yo” = “more than I”, but when we use numbers we use “de”.
There were more than 20 people at the conference. Había más de 20 personas en la conferencia.
He knows more than I. Él sabe más que yo.

The person I live with

The boy I live with. *El chico que vivo con.*
Prepositions never come at the end of a sentence in Spanish. The preposition must come before a noun, a pronoun or an article.
The boy I live with. El chico con quien vivo. / El chico con el que vivo.
Whom can I speak to? ¿Con quién puedo hablar?

He’s dressed in red

He’s dressed in red. *Está vestido en rojo.*
When we use dressed in + “a color” we use “de”.
He’s dressed in red. Está vestido de rojo.


I supported his decision *Soportaba su decisión.*
“Soportar” = “to tolerate” or “to put up with” or “to stand (have patience for)”. In most cases we use “apoyar”.
I supported his decision. Yo apoyaba su decisión.
I can’t stand Juan. No soporto a Juan.


I like adventure stories. *Me gustan las cuentas de aventuras.*
Cuento = story or tale
Contar una historia = to tell a story
Cuenta = Cuenta bancaria = bank account
Cuenta = a sum (mathematical calculation)
Cuenta = Bill in a restaurant: Note that we use “cuenta” for a bill with food and drinks, but for other types of bill we use “factura” eg. plumbers, in the garage etc.
I like adventure stories. Me gustan los cuentos de aventuras.
I don’t have any money in my account. No tengo fondos en mi cuenta.
They always make mistakes in the bill. Siempre se equivocan en la cuenta.
Can you bring us the bill please? ¿Nos trae la cuenta, por favor?

Take someone / Take something

I took my son to the airport. *Tomé a mi hijo al aeropuerto.*
To express the idea of giving someone a lift or taking someone somewhere, we use the verb “llevar”.
To express the idea of taking something such as a pill, a drink, a bus, etc. we use the verb “tomar”.
I took my son to the airport. Llevé a mi hijo al aeropuerto.
My son took a taxi to the airport. Mi hijo tomo un taxi al aeropuerto.


He drank a lot and the next morning he had a hangover. *Bebió mucho y la próxima mañana tenía resaca.*
The “próxima/o” (next) is only used in the present and the future. In the past we must use “siguiente” (the following).
He drank a lot and the next morning he had a hangover. Bebió mucho y la mañana siguente tenía resaca.
They met in 1990 and they will get married next year. Se conocieron en 1990 y se van a casar el año próximo.

It was a success

The film was a big success in Argentina. *La película tuvo mucho suceso en Argentina*.
Success in Spanish is “éxito”. “Suceso” is an event.
The film was a big success in Argentina. La pelicula tuvo mucho éxito en Argentina.
The event took place in the city. El suceso tomó lugar en la ciudad.

I will be here for 6 months

I will be here for five days. *Voy a estar aquí por cinco días.*
This is the answer to the question. How long are you going to be here?
In Spanish you have to say “voy a estar aquí” or the meaning is unclear.
I will be here for five days. Voy a estar aquí cinco dias.

In the morning

In the morning *en la mañana*
The problem is the preposition “en” it should be “por” or “de”. We use “por” when we speak about an approximate time:
eg: Por la tarde doy un paseo. = I go for a walk in the evening.We use “de” when we speak about the exact time:
eg: A las 5 de la tarde doy un paseo. = I go for a walk at 5 o clock in the evening.
in the morning por la mañana:
early in the morning temprano por la mañana
at midday al mediodía
at lunchtime a la hora de comer/a la hora de almorzar
in the evening por la tarde
at midnight a medianoche
in the early hours of the morning por la madrugada

I live in the Suburbs

I live in the suburbs. *Vivo en los suburbios.*
The “suburbios” in Spanish is a conflictive area of a city with poverty and other problems. It is not a good translation of “suburb” or “outskirts”
I live in the suburbs of Bogota. Vivo en las afueras de Bogotá.

To move

I’m going to move to another house. *Voy a moverme a otra casa.*
When you want to say “to move” in the sense of changing where you live you have to use the verb “mudarse”.
“Moverse” is to move as in movement.
“Correrse” is to move over.
I’m going to move to another house. Voy a mudarme a otra casa.
The dancer moves with grace. La bailarina se mueve con gracia.
Please move over. Córrete por favor.

Regarding / To respect

I don’t know anything regarding this subject. *No sé nada respeto a este asunto.*
You must respect your wife. *Debes respectar a tu esposa.*
“Respecto a” (regarding) and “respeto” (respect).
I don’t know anything regarding this subject. No sé nada respecto a este asunto.
You must respect your wife. Debes respetar a tu esposa.

My oldest / youngest brother

My oldest/youngest brother *Mi hermano más viejo/joven*
You have to use “mayor” or “menor”.
My oldest brother lives in Guatemala. Mi hermano mayor vive en Guatemala.
Patricia is my youngest daughter. Patricia es mi hija menor.

Look for – Search

I am looking for my book. *Estoy mirando para mi libro.*
“Mirando para” doesn’t exist, it’s a literal translation from English. You can use “buscar” but it has no preposition.
Note: When the thing we are looking for is a person we add “a” after “buscar”.
I am looking for my book. Estoy buscando mi libro.
I am looking at the book. Estoy mirando el libro.


Did you buy the tickets for the cinema? *¿Compraste los billetes para el cine?*
“Boletos” or “Pasajes” are for travel tickets. We use “entradas” for ticket to the theater or cinema or shows.
By the way: A showing in the cinema is the “la sesión” A performance at the theatre is “la función”
Did you buy the tickets for the cinema? ¿Compraste las entradas para el cine?
Did you buy the train tickets? ¿Compraste los boletos para el tren?


Writing Strong Leads

Structure of an Argumentative Essay





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